Locking the bathroom door and running water to dissolve the sound of purging. Research uncovers links between bulimic behavior and a lack of attachment to othersboth past and present day.
For example, some show increased thresholds to heat pain compared and report the same level of satiety after consuming more calories than do healthy subjects. Biological[ edit ] As with anorexia nervosathere is evidence of genetic predispositions contributing to the onset of this eating disorder.
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor BDNF Applying theory to bulimia under investigation as a possible mechanism. Studies have shown that women with hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovary syndrome have a dysregulation of appetite, along with carbohydrates and fats.
This dysregulation of appetite is also seen in women with bulimia nervosa. In addition, gene knockout studies in mice have shown that mice that have the gene encoding estrogen receptors have decreased fertility due to ovarian dysfunction and dysregulation of androgen receptors.
Accordingly, this would lead to unrealistically restricted eating, which may consequently induce an eventual "slip" where the individual commits a minor infraction of the strict and inflexible dietary rules. Moreover, the cognitive distortion due to dichotomous thinking leads the individual to binge.
The binge subsequently should trigger a perceived loss of control, promoting the individual to purge in hope of counteracting the binge. However, Fairburn et al. In turn, Byrne and Mclean argued that this makes the individual vulnerable to binging, indicating that it is not a binge-purge cycle but rather a purge-binge cycle in that purging comes before bingeing.
Similarly, Fairburn et al. Everyone differs from another, and taking such a complex behavior like bulimia and applying the same one theory to everyone would certainly be invalid.
In addition, the cognitive behavioral model of bulimia nervosa is very cultural bound in that it may not be necessarily applicable to cultures outside of the Western society. To evaluate, Fairburn et al. Furthermore, it is difficult to ascertain cause and effect, because it may be that distorted eating leads to distorted cognition rather than vice versa.
The reported incident rate of unwanted sexual contact is higher among those with bulimia nervosa than anorexia nervosa. The thin ideal internalization is the extent to which individuals adapt to the societal ideals of attractiveness.
Studies have shown that young females that read fashion magazines tend to have more bulimic symptoms than those females who do not. This further demonstrates the impact of media on the likelihood of developing the disorder.
Kevin Thompson and Eric Stice claim that family, peers, and most evidently media reinforce the thin ideal, which may lead to an individual accepting and "buying into" the thin ideal.
In turn, Thompson and Stice assert that if the thin ideal is accepted, one could begin to feel uncomfortable with their body shape or size since it may not necessarily reflect the thin ideal set out by society.
Thus, people feeling uncomfortable with their bodies may result in suffering from body dissatisfaction and may develop a certain drive for thinness. Consequently, body dissatisfaction coupled with a drive for thinness is thought to promote dieting and negative effects, which could eventually lead to bulimic symptoms such as purging or bingeing.
Binges lead to self-disgust which causes purging to prevent weight gain. The aim of their study was to investigate how and to what degree media affects the thin ideal internalization. Thompson and Stice used randomized experiments more specifically programs dedicated to teaching young women how to be more critical when it comes to media, in order to reduce thin ideal internalization.
The results showed that by creating more awareness of the media's control of the societal ideal of attractiveness, the thin ideal internalization significantly dropped.
In other words, less thin ideal images portrayed by the media resulted in less thin ideal internalization. Therefore, Thompson and Stice concluded that media greatly affected the thin ideal internalization.
People that associate themselves with thin models get in a positive attitude when they see thin models and people that associate with overweight get in a negative attitude when they see thin models. Moreover, it can be taught to associate with thinner people. This means that the high expectations and unrealistic goals that these individuals set for themselves are internally motivated rather than by social views or expectations.The theory of attachment, which concerns a childs relationship with their parents at a young age, could partially explain how certain people are more likely to develop compulsive eating disorders at some point during their life.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy, or CBT, is the leading evidence-based treatment for adults with eating disorders and is also adapted for use with younger patients. It is based on the theory that a person’s thoughts, emotions, and behaviors are interconnected and can be restructured to support new, healthier thoughts and actions.
The theory of attachment, which concerns a childs relationship with their parents at a young age, could partially explain how certain people are more likely to develop . Bulimia Nervosa is an illness in which a person binges on food or has frequent episodes of overeating and feels a loss of control.
In result the person uses different methods, such as vomiting or laxatives to prevent weight gain. Many people with bulimia also have anorexia nervosa. A bulimic person can consume as much as 3, calories in about . Cognitive behavioral therapy is the gold standard treatment for bulimia.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy is time-limited, meaning that a person with bulimia will go into treatment for a specific. treatment of anorexia and bulimia nervosa.
However, application of artetherapy and psychodrama, combined with psychoanalytic and psychodynamic psychotherapy (based o n object relations theory) in the treatment of eating disorders has not been thoroughly discussed in subject literature [Levens, Jay]. It applies mainly to Polish references.