Comprehensive problem 4

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Comprehensive problem 4

These changes in ESEA and IDEA legislation clearly provide opportunities for students to participate in quality core instruction in reading and mathematics designed to ensure that poor achievement is not a result of inappropriate or inadequate instruction. Thus, recent legislation has provided an alternative to reliance on a model based primarily on a severe discrepancy between achievement and ability in the learning disabilities identification and eligibility process.

Other legislative changes have influenced the assessment and evaluation process. These include provision for funding early intervening services as well as recognition of the importance of assistive technology, universal design for learning, and postsecondary transition to educational success for many students with disabilities, including learning disabilities.

IDEA also has led to other changes in educational practices.

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The emphasis on use of state standards for educational planning and participation in accountability systems for all students has led to increased use of inclusive practices. In addition, goals for IEPs also are standards-based, and monitoring the progress toward these goals is often based on classroom formative and summative assessments.

Comprehensive problem 4

Several areas of research have influenced comprehensive assessment and evaluation components and processes. These focused on use of the discrepancy model, skills critical to reading success in the early grades, and development of a team-based problem-solving approach to assist students who are struggling academically.

More recent research has emerged in many areas, including, but not limited to, implementation of response-based problem-solving models in literacy, complexities of reading, noncognitive influences, brain function, genetics, and accountability measures.

These advances in research show promise for further enhancing effective comprehensive assessment and evaluation of students with learning disabilities, as well as impacting future assessment and instruction processes.

Note You must complete Comprehensive Problem 4 Part A before completing Comprehensive Problem 4

Because research did not support the rigid application of the commonly used discrepancy formula as the sole criterion for determination of specific learning disabilities Fletcher et al. In the late s, clinical research on critical beginning reading skills such as phonemic awareness, phonics, and explicit instruction e.

The call for a response-based problem-solving process has raised new questions about the role of RTI in a comprehensive assessment and evaluation process. A growing body of research concerns specific aspects of the process, including frequency of monitoring; intervention fidelity and intensity; effects in scaled-up models; longitudinal results; cost effectiveness; and maintenance of change over time.

In mathematics, the specific language, cognitive processes, and academic skills, which may or may not be impaired in students with learning disabilities, are not as well developed as those in reading and writing Fletcher et al.

However, research is emerging on how mathematical computation and problem solving can be effectively integrated into an RTI or problem-solving process.

Emerging reading research is providing new understanding about how specific complex reading components interact with language Fletcher et al.

For example, the fluency component of reading is often narrowly defined as automatic, and therefore, rapid word recognition, but " there is a growing consensus that accuracy, automaticity, and [pitch, or] prosody all In a recent related study, Wanzek, Roberts, and Linan-Thompson compared oral reading fluency performance in primary grade students with third grade reading comprehension measured on both state and nationally normed tests.

However, students were more likely to show proficiency on state-normed than on nationally-normed tests, suggesting that students passing a state test may still be at risk for problems in reading achievement.

In contrast, literacy research has evolved beyond reading and writing to include how oral and written language interacts with cognitive processes within classroom, family, and community contexts.

The focus also has expanded to address literacy across the age-span from early and emerging literacy, to adolescent, adult, workforce, and lifelong literacy.

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Although assessment instruments are now translated into Spanish, Chinese, and other languages, particular care must be taken when assessing ELL students whose native language is not English.

Recent research has begun to address the importance of understanding the interactive factors of language and literacy development in bilingual students Petrovic, In addition to confirming the complexity of learning and literacy processes, research suggests the need for a variety of assessment instruments, tools, and procedures to determine if, when, and how such variables affect learning in students with learning disabilities, as well as ensuring that instructional approaches are selected that enhance noncognitive variables in students.

New advances in medical research in areas such as brain function and genetics are also contributing to the understanding and identification of learning disabilities.

IDEA also has stimulated cutting-edge research on applying new statistical models to document changes in student proficiency more clearly than the model mandated by ESEA for determining accountability and adequate yearly progress AYP.

There is particular interest in growth models that incorporate changes in achievement of individual students into statewide accountability data for calculation of AYP Goldschmidt et al.COMPREHENSIVE PROBLEM 4.

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