To understand the effect of the Turquand rule, it is important to examine the doctrine of constructive notice. The Doctrine of Constructive Notice which was developed in Ernest v Nicholls 6 HL Caswas to the effect that all persons dealing with a company are deemed to be familiar with the content of its public documents of the company the most important of which were the Memorandum of Association and the Articles of Association, because they were available for public inspection. This doctrine protected the company at the expense of third parties, thus, there was a need to even things out, hence the formulation of the Turquand rule. The effect of the Turquand rule is that a third party dealing with a company has constructive notice of the internal formalities of a company required by its constitution but does not have notice of whether or not they have been complied with and is not obliged to enquire.
The rule of Doctrine of Indoor Management is conflicting to that of the principle of Constructive Notice. The latter seeks to protect the company against outsiders; the former operates to protect outsiders against the company.
If the contract is consistent with the public document, the person contracting will not be prejudiced by irregularities that may beset the indoor work of the company.
The Doctrine of Indoor Management lays down that persons dealing with a company having satisfied themselves that the proposed transaction is not in its nature inconsistent with the memorandum and articles, are not bound to inquire the regularity of any internal proceeding.
In other words, while persons contracting with a company are presumed to know the provisions of the contents of the memorandum and articles, they are entitled to assume that the provisions of the articles, they are entitled to assume that the officers of the company have observed the provisions of the articles.
It is no part of duty of any outsider to see that the company carries out its own internal regulations. It is important to note that the notice of constructive notice can be invoked by the company and it does not operate against the company.
It operates against the person who has failed to inquire but does not operate in his favour. In this case the Directors of the Company were authorized by the articles to borrow on bonds such sums The rule in turquands case money as should from time to time by a special resolution of the Company in a general meeting, be authorized to be borrowed.
A bond under the seal of the company, signed by two directors and the secretary was given by the Directors to the plaintiff to secure the drawings on current account without the authority of any such resolution. Then Turquand sought to bind the Company on the basis of that bond.
Thus the question arose whether the company was liable on that bond. The Court of Exchequer Chamber overruled all objections and held that the bond was binding on the company as Turquand was entitled to assume that the resolution of the Company in general meeting had been passed.
The relevant portion of the judgment of Jervis C. That seems to me enough We may now take for granted that the dealings with these companies are not like dealings with other partnerships, and the parties dealing with them are bound to read the statute and the deed of settlement.
But they are not bound to do more. And the party here on reading the deed of settlement, would find, not a prohibition from borrowing but a permission to do so on certain conditions. Finding that the authority might be made complete by a resolution, he would have a right to infer the fact of a resolution authorizing that which on the face of the document appear to be legitimately done.
East Holyford Mining Co. The case is an excellent example of Court drawing out qualifications to the rule. The copy was itself signed by the secretary.
It came out subsequently that neither the directors nor the secretary had ever been formally appointed. According to the articles, the directors were to be nominated by the subscribers to the memorandum and the cheques were to be signed in such manner as the board might determine.
Provided that nothing in this section shall be deemed to give validity to acts done by a director after his appointment has been shown to the company to be invalid or to have terminated: Bona fide allottees of shares are protected by the Doctrine of Indoor Management under s They were not bound to enquire whether the acts of the Directors which as in this case related to internal management had been properly and regularly performed.
Even when the Directors exceed their powers or infringe the restrictions imposed upon them, the company may be bound for the outsider dealing with the company is only required to see that the transactions are consistent with the article.
In the following way: So if there is a managing director and authority in the articles for the directors to delegate their powers to him, a person dealing with him may assume that it is within the ordinary duties of a managing director.
All he has to see is that the managing director might have power to do what he purports to do. But the rule cannot apply where the question, as here, is not one as to the scope of the power exercised by an apparent agent of the company, but is in regard to the very existence of the agency.
Ltd, the plaintiff company sued the defendant company on a loan for Rs. Among other things the defendant company raised the plea that the transaction was not binding as no resolution sanctioning the loan was passed by the board of directors.
If the transaction in question could be authorised by the passing of a resolution, such an act is a mere formality. A bona fide creditor, in the absence of any suspicious circumstances, is entitled to presume its existence. A transaction entered into by the borrowing company under such circumstances cannot be defeated merely on the ground that no such resolution was in fact passed.
The passing of such a resolution is a mere matter of indoor or internal management and its absence, under such circumstances, cannot be used to defeat the just claim of a bona fide creditor. A creditor being an outsider or a third party and an innocent stranger is entitled to proceed on the assumption of its existence ; and is not expected to know what happens within the doors that are closed to him.
Where the act is not ultra vires the statute or the company such a creditor would be entitled to assume the apparent or ostensible authority of the agent to be a real or genuine one. He could assume that such a person had the power to represent the company, and if he in fact advanced the money on such assumption, he would be protected by the doctrine of internal management.
Commissioner of police the learned judge observed that the lenders to a company should acquaint themselves with memorandum and articles but they cannot be expected to embark upon an investigation as to legality, propriety and regularity of acts of directors.
The rule is based upon obvious reasons of convenience in business relations. Firstly, the memorandum and articles of associations are public documents, open to public inspection.The Rule in Turquand's Case Words Aug 15th, 6 Pages The doctrine of Indoor management, popularly known as the Turquand's rule initially arose some years ago in the context of the doctrine of constructive notice.
Mar 02, · For anyone that did question 1 on ostensible authority did you mention to the 3 exceptions to the rule in Turquands?
Also I only had three cases (freeman & Lockyer, Turquand and Aib v Ardmore). Do people think that's enoiugh? DoosanMoxy Studying For Everyone! Skip to content. Papers; Essays that will help you. Free papers. Content. The essay help offers pre-written essays on a variety of topics for reasonable prices.
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So Rule in Turquand’s case is aimed to protect outsider dealing with coys where there is an irregularity 不规则 concerned (Purpose)— Hughes v NM Superannuation Pty Ltd (p). If sales “are made entirely by mail or telephone,” the Cooling-Off Rule does not apply because in such cases there is no way for the consumer to truly prove unto him- or herself that the seller is genuine (“The Cooling-Off Rule”).
Turquands Rule ; Act and Rule Utilitarianism ; Rule of Augustine V.
Einhards Charlemagne. The doctrine of Indoor management, popularly known as the Turquand's rule initially arose some years ago in the context of the doctrine of constructive notice.
The doctrine of constructive notice of a company's public documents was, of course, abolished prospectively.